What are the standards for EV charger?
With the development of electric vehicles, it has penetrated into all aspects of people's lives and social production, whether it is family cars, taxis, online car-hailing, buses, logistics vehicles, even large trucks, dump trucks, and special engineering vehicles , are gradually replaced by electric vehicles.
Electric vehicles have many advantages. With the further construction and layout of charging piles, it will continue to make electric vehicle charging more convenient and improve the experience of electric vehicles. The prerequisite for convenient charging of electric vehicles is that the charging pile can be adapted to all electric vehicles to avoid incompatibility between the charging pile and the electric vehicle, that is, a unified charging pile standard is required.
Just like the development of other industries from disorder to standardization, the development of the charging pile industry is also a process of gradual standardization. Only standardization can regulate the interface and interoperability between electric vehicles and charging facilities; specify the product quality and performance requirements of charging facilities to ensure charging safety; specify the requirements for large-scale promotion, construction and operation of charging facilities; gradually develop the international market and promote international standardization.
At present, there are four main charging pile standards in the world. Do you know them?
At present, the main four charging pile standards in the world are: Chinese national standard GB/T, CCS1 American standard (combo/Type 1), CCS2 European standard (combo/Type 2), and Japanese standard CHAdeMO.
CCS (Combined Charging System) combined charging system
The CCS (Combined Charging System) combined charging system standard is derived from the DC fast combined charging system combo standard based on the SAE standard of the American Society of Automotive Engineers and the ACEA standard of the European Automobile Industry Association. The "Fast Charging Association" was established. In the same year, Ford, GM, Volkswagen, Audi, BMW, Daimler and Porsche, and Chrysler and other 8 major German car companies issued a statement on the establishment of a unified electric vehicle fast charging standard, and then announced the joint promotion of the CCS standard. . It was soon recognized by the American and German automobile industry associations.
The advantage of this charging interface is that it integrates ordinary charging and fast charging into one plug and socket, using single-phase, three-phase alternating current and direct current, and has gradually become the United States and European Union countries and countries that adopt American and European Union standards such as South Korea, Singapore, Common charging pile standards in India, Russia and other countries.
The standard represents a commanding height of the industry and has always been a battleground for technological and industrial powers. Japan is able to benefit from its strong automotive technology and industrial strength. Electric vehicles have also developed earlier, and they are also strongly promoting charging pile standards. In the face of competition from Japan's charging pile standards, in September 2014, the EU passed the "Alternative Energy Infrastructure Construction Directive", proposing that public charging stations be prohibited from building Japan's CHAdeMO standard charging piles from 2019. The electric vehicle charging network in Europe is required to implement the CCS Type 2 charging pile standard, and CCS Type 2 has gradually become the main European charging pile standard.
CCS Type 2 standard in the DC fast charging mode, the voltage is 500V, the output current is 200A, and it only takes 30 minutes to fully charge an electric vehicle with a cruising range of 350 kilometers. At present, European brands such as BMW, Mercedes-Benz and Audi all support the charging piles of the CCS Type 2 standard.
Japanese CHAdeMO standard
The CHAdeMO standard is a standard introduced by the Japan Electric Vehicle Association and the Japan Electric Vehicle Charging Association.
In March 2010, Japan's major automakers, the country's largest electric vehicle company, and the government jointly implemented a plan to create a fast charging standard for electric vehicles, established the "Electric Vehicle Charging Association", and released the CHAdeMO standard. CHAdeMO, translated into Chinese, means "charging time is as short as a tea break". It can be seen that this is a standard for high-power fast charging.
In the process of promoting this standard to become a global standard, several major Japanese car companies and charging pile operating companies have joined forces to go overseas and actively promote them in Europe and the United States to take the lead. Japan's largest automakers such as Toyota, Nissan, Mitsubishi and Tokyo Electric Power Company all support the standard. Electric vehicles such as Nissan Leaf, Mitsubishi i-MiEV and South Korea's Kia SOUL EV, which were successfully introduced to the world in the early days, also adopted this standard.
The Japanese government has made great efforts to promote it. "Every time a charging pile of Japanese charging standard is built in the United States, the Japanese government will subsidize 10,000 US dollars." This is still the subsidy level ten years ago. The standard has been promoted to the international market step by step. As early as 2012, the CHAdeMO standard has been extended to 24 countries. It is no wonder that the European Union proposed to ban the construction of Japanese-standard charging piles as mentioned above.
Chinese National Standard GB/T
With the rapid development of China's electric vehicle industry, China has gradually become the world's largest electric vehicle production and consumption country, and has also established an independent charging pile standard, namely the Chinese national standard GB/T "Electric Vehicle Charging Pile Charging Station Standard". Unification is the key to building China's electric vehicle ecosystem. China not only has to face the fiercely competitive electric vehicle market, but also face the battle for international standards for charging piles.
On December 28, 2015, the General Administration of Quality Supervision, Inspection and Quarantine of the People's Republic of China, the National Standards Commission, together with the National Energy Administration, the Ministry of Industry and Information Technology, the Ministry of Science and Technology and other departments, released 5 new national standards for the newly revised electric vehicle charging interface and communication protocol. The new standards are from January 2016. Implemented from the 1st of the month.
The five standards released this time are:
GB/T 18487.1-2015 "General Requirements for Electric Vehicle Conduction Charging System"
GB/T 20234.1-2015 "General Requirements for Connecting Devices for Conductive Charging of Electric Vehicles"
GB/T 20234.2-2015 "Connecting Device for Conductive Charging of Electric Vehicles AC Charging Interface"
GB/T 20234.3 -2015 "Connecting Device for Conductive Charging of Electric Vehicles DC Charging Interface"
GB/T 27930‐2015 "Communication Protocol between Off-Board Conductive Charger and Battery Management System for Electric Vehicles"
In 2018, 5 newly revised national standards were released. The revision of the 5 standards has comprehensively improved the safety and compatibility of charging.
At the same time, the country has also formulated and successively formulated high-power charging series standards, low-power DC charging related standards, wireless charging related standards, electric vehicle charging and discharging two-way interactive series standards, special vehicle charging standards, etc.
A new generation of charging technology standard - "Chaoji"
With the strong rise of China's electric vehicle industry, the influence of Chinese standards in the world is also growing. In September 2018, Yang Kun, executive vice chairman of the China Electricity Council, and Toshiyuki Shiga, chairman of the Japan Electric Vehicle Charging Association (CHAdeMO), jointly signed a memorandum of understanding on technical and standard cooperation in the field of electric vehicle charging facilities in Beijing. China Electricity Council standards and CHAdeMO standards will carry out in-depth cooperation, and plan to develop new standards and launch a new generation of chargers in 2020. This new technical standard is named "Chaoji".
At that time, the "Chaoji" charging standard will be an advanced high-power charging standard led by China to lead the world, and it will also be another milestone in the development of China's electric vehicle industry. China's electric vehicle industry will follow and catch up in terms of unified charging technology standards. , and eventually reached the level of leading the world, which will also better promote the development of the electric vehicle industry in the world.
At present, the standard of charging piles in the world is still in the pattern of "four parts of the world". In the future, with the development of the electric vehicle industry, will the charging standards of the world be unified? Is it possible to travel around the world in an electric car? The answers to these questions may be gradually revealed under the development of the entire electric vehicle industry. I also sincerely hope that the next generation of China's national standard "Chaoji" can go to the world and develop better and better!
AC Type EV Charger Connectors
DC Type EV Charger Connectors
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